Thursday, January 17, 2019

Realism and Metarealism in Mary Shelley’s Horror Tale Frankenstein

Many great newfoundfound(a)s act as representations of their senesce and term, and of the trend in which people thought of themselves in relation to their world. Novels which are set in a particular place and time are generally involved with the major upheavals of their society, to near extent or do worker(a). The novel is capable of high up alluding to the general aspirations, perceptions, the general world-view as well as what people gestate they know about how the world they live in has bring about.In this respect, for instance, Jane Austens compliment and Prejudice and bloody shame Shelleys Frankenstein, which are seemingly poles apart in their zeal and content, serve a similar purpose the former is concerned to appraise the currents of change of its time as a great deal as the latter is excite by the r developmentary developments of knowledge of the coeval world (Walder one hundred thirty-five). bloody shame Shelleys Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus (18 18) certainly seems to be entirely derived from a dream or wickednessmare, something very unlikely to drive happened to somebody in real manners.True, some novels nookie seem to be to a greater extent fictitious than others, and Frankenstein had been a novel in fictional category of its make. With her novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, at the age of 20, in occurrence inadvertently invented a revolutionary whole new genre of fiction which hardly existed before her time, namely science fiction. In this sense, Frankenstein may not be deterrent example of real brio, and yet it was representative of an emerging new paradigm of scientific thinking in her time, during the first-year decades of the nineteenth century.Frankenstein is generally regarded as representative of over-the-top fiction, with man acting as God, dead bodies coming to life, monsters, massacre and mayhem yet we exit here argue that there is a great degree of realness in this quintessential fantasy legend of the early nineteenth century. The every-day realism in Frankenstein is deftly combined with factors of a prevalent genre called Gothic, which more than suited Mary Shelleys soaring imaginings. For instance, in the Gothic novel, ane story is often nestled within another and large sections of the narrative come out as a tale told by unmatched flake to another.In this and some(prenominal) other senses, Frankenstein follows many rules and conventions typical of the Gothic genre. At the sum of money of the novel is the story told by the zoology that exists within the story told by the scientist Frankenstein, which is within the story told by the explorer, Walton (Allen 63). Yet this is no regular disgust tale. Though it certainly created one of the two enduring monsters of all time in English allegory, this is not a monster tale in any real sense either.Frankensteins creature, though labeled a monster, suffernot be considered a monster, with any true justification, on par with other popular monsters such as genus Dracula or Godzilla. Frankensteins creature is a noble savage, and if anything, is sometimes more human than roughly humans. For instance, in the most recent revival of Frankensteins creature on Hollywood Screen, he sides with the eponymous human protagonist, Van Helsing, to battle against Count Dracula and his forces of darkness. Frankensteins creature embodies the quintessential human spirit and human longings.In a similar way, though being part of the Gothic fantasy tradition, and the most significant harbinger of perhaps the most highly imaginative genre of fiction, besides referring to a Greek myth in its sub-title, Mary Shelleys Frankenstein embodies a little of the spirit, the longings and fears of her age. Frankensteins 1818 preface makes a clear distinction among its scientific p potful, which was inspired by the scientific leanings of the time, and the more easily accepted action in the vein of Gothic fiction I have not considered m yself as unstainedly weaving a series of fey terrors.The howevert on which the interest of the story depends is exempt from the disadvantages of a mere tale of spectres or enchantment. (Shelley 47) In truth, Frankensteins claim to originality lies in its defiant rejection of the miraculous (Alkon 2). therefore, though often regarded as a fabulous flight of fancy, Mary Shelleys Frankenstein contains a powerful dose of realism, as opposed to super inbornism, symbolism, or handsome fantasy, at its core. But much more importantly, for the first time in the history of literature, it wants out a new scientifically based mickle of reality.By attempting to transpose the status of creator from God to man, and the secularization of the means of populace from the realm of miracles to the arena of science (Levine 27), Frankenstein offered a drastically new way of looking at our world that is devoid of supernaturalism or fantasy. Thus Frankenstein is not only a product of what is known as vivid imagination, solely presents a deeper understanding of reality more in guardianship with the then rather newly emerging scientific mode of thinking.Terror form a predominant element, an effect Mary Shelley avowedly sought to create, in the novel, yet it is by no means of a supernatural variety, as for instance in its counterpart Bram Stokers Dracula (or even Draculas progenitor Byrons Vampyre which was incidentally created during the kindred do that spurred the creating of Frankenstein). The fright factor in the novel is implemented by dint of natural means involving science and human psychology.Thus, although affiliated to the accepted Gothic norms and forms of creating a shadiness story, Frankensteins essential realism validates its claim to novelty. The fear that Frankenstein evokes is not one of a spooky, instinctive kind, only rather of more thoughtful and pat nature. Frankenstein succeeds in inspiring awe and reverence for greatness of ambition, and yet at th e kindred time instills a healthy level of fear and qualm of those who act on it rather blindly.The ambition of the novels protagonist, sea captain Frankenstein, that of recreating a living intelligent human form, may seem antic to us, yet it was by no means wholly outlandish by the standards of the time, the early nineteenth century being an extravagantly ambitious era when literally almost everything was considered possible by means of science. Great ambitions can succeed in the realization of great dreams, but they can to a fault result in bringing to life unspeakable nightmares.Thus, though Mary Shelley may have worked on to create a conspicuous element of stark horror merely for the sake of sensationalism, in conforming with the purposes of specter story genre, the fears that Frankenstein gives expression to are more like warnings of consequences when great ambitions recede a wrong track or are betrothd without adequate foresight. Alkon observes that A looming problem fo r writers in the nineteenth century was how to achieve sublimity without stamping ground to the supernatural.The supernatural marvels that had been a staple of epic and lesser forms from Homeric times would no longer do as the best sources of sublimity. Although ghost stories and related Gothic fantasies were to prove surprisingly viable right through the twentieth century, perhaps because they offer respite from the omnipresence of technology, writers sought new forms that could better accommodate the impact of science. Epics were displaced by realistic novels of quotidian life (2). . Fantasy tales normally act as a means of lead from the tyranny of every-day reality.However the advent and advancement of modern science was making the telephone number world that we take for granted a place of exhilarating possibilities and never-failing adventure. There was no need for an escape from our familiar world to seek thrill, excitement and sublimity anymore. Science made our every-day world hot and happening. At the same time, the phenomenal progress and promise of science was bound to raise many fears and concerns in the thinker and common man alike, then as much as now.Frankenstein reflects the dominant theme of a quest for adventure and accomplishment, along with hopes and fears about how far we are willing to go in our downcast pursuit of scientific accomplishment. A significant achievement of Frankenstein lies in the fact that it became a trend-setter in a movement that was to bring more style and substance based on considerations of real-life world into the art form of the novel.However the most sublime virtue of Mary Shelleys novel is that it goes beyond even realism into the world of deeper and timeless truths about human existence. The subtitle of the novel, The Modern Prometheus says it all. In the summer of 1816, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin had been living with Percy Shelley for two years, sledding through ordeals and troubled times together. During this particular period they found themselves colonized in Geneva, amidst the natural splendor of Alps, as well as in the stimulating company of Bryon.The origins of Frankenstein can be traced back to the rambling night conversations between these three luminaries, which must have presumably ranged from gothic terrors to galvanism, pitiful upon the prevalent theories of electricity and the origin of life. However, the fact that the three of them were to compose a major work with Prometheus in or as the title, that very same year, is a clear indicator that the myth of Prometheus and its significance should have been one of the major topics of their conversations.The subtitle of the novel Frankenstein, alluding to the myth of Prometheus, indeed holds an essential mite as to the original intent and purport of the author (Joseph v). Metarealism, for our present purposes, can be defined as the externalization of interior realities that are modify into mystical or mythological metaphors . In this sense, transcending the particular context of its contemporary time, Frankenstein becomes a myth and a metaphor for human existence and evolution as such.Prometheus is generally portrayed as the suffering champion of mankind, but in Mary Shelleys novel, in the form of Victor Frankenstein, he becomes a creator. The vital spark of fire that Prometheus stole from gods to give it to mortals for their use, and for which he is eternally condemned, is often equated with the spark of creativity in humans. As express via the means of science, our creativity can exalt us to the status of gods at the same time, there is an intrinsic danger that it can cast us into eternal perdition.Almost two hundred after impetuously and almost naively suggested by Mary Shelley, notwithstanding the realistic scientific garb she cherished to give it, the prospect of us humans creating synthetic and intelligent life would come very close to reality in the years to come, give thanks not the miracles of electricity, as depicted in the novel, but to the marvels of genetic engineering. However, the murder and mayhem unleashed by Frankensteins creature could pale into utter insignificance when compared to the horrors that could be visited upon us by extremely advanced technologies of tomorrow, especially genetic engineering.The lot that fell upon Victor Frankenstein could in all probability be the requisite of mankind in the near future. Mary Shelley attempted to make what was fundamentally a gothic fantasy sound closer to our real world, but most ironically, our real world is all poised to assume the weirdness and surrealism of a gothic fantasy if the Victor Frankenstein amidst us is allowed to experiment and pursue his scientific ambitions wantonly.Unfortunately, there does not seem any way to tour him, because stopping him would mean the ending of progress. Our own progress leading to our own perdition, perhaps that is the ultimate tragedy and horror of humankind. References Alkon, Paul K. Science fiction Before 1900 Imagination Discovers Technology. London Routledge. 2002 Allen, Richard. Reading Frankenstein. In, The Realist Novel, ed. Dennis Walder. pp. 61 -96. London Routledge. 1995. Joseph, M. K. Introduction. Frankenstein Or the Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Oxford Oxford University Press. 1969 Levine, George. The Realistic Imagination English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterly. Chicago The University of Chicago Press. 1981 Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein (Original 1818 Text). Peterborough, Ontario Broadway Press. 1999 Walder, Dennis. Reading Great Expectations. In, The Realist Novel, ed. Dennis Walder. pp. 135 -166. London Routledge. 1995.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Social Inequality in the Modern Era

Social Inequality in the Early youthful Era Throughout history, there has been an extreme discrimination against different groups of great deal. Women arouse been disrespected entirely because of what their religions holy book says. The Pope had the role over tell, not the monarch. The warp of your skin has even determined your rove in society. Even though this was more in the early novel era, it still happens today. People have had to work their way to gain rights. Examples of fond inequality in the raw era atomic number 18 the separation of perform and state, rights of women, and the mixer kink of race.According to the tidings, the woman was created mainly as a blighter for man, not the other way around. Women are incapable of making decisions, and so they are inferior to men. This is the same for Islam because in the Koran it says, The men are made responsible for the women, since God endowed them with certain equalities, and made them the dirty money earners. A lso in Islam, the role of the women is to manage the home basehold, take care of the expenses, find out their children, and help with the agriculture. And women are expected 100% to do so of these things.Since the drive of religion is to bring order and people something to believe in, this is what is expected in society. In the Great Chain of Being, the family is divided into ranks. The father is at the surpass of the family, the mother being the second. Even in the Enlightenment this idea is passed through with(predicate) Jean-Jacques Rousseau that a womens education is secondary to men. In the early novel era, the church was clearly over the monarch. Before the Protestant reformation, everybody got their ideas from the Pope.Since most people could not read, the Pope was basically running the country, with the monarch having little supply. Martin Luther argued that each(prenominal) man can be his own Priest and that everybody is in detail equal with each other. The Pope sh ould no longer have authorisation over anybody because what he is doing is wrong. The Catholic Church still tried to endorse their argument by saying the Churchs interpretation of the Bible is final, but some still converted to Lutheranism. Some monarchs tried to obey the power of the church.Queen Elizabeth abolished the Catholic Church, and created the Anglican Church giving her more power and abolishing the Pope. In the social construction of race, whites are above everybody. The only fence why they are the superior race is because they have created the social construction of race. This dates back to when the Europeans first discovered the new world inhabited by congenital Americans. They thought the primeval Americans as natural-born slaves. Juan Gines de Sepulveda argued that Native Americans are slaves by nature, uncivilized, barbarian, and inhuman.Aristotle even thought that indigenous people were not human. When the Native American population died down, Europeans starte d to discriminate blacks. In the paternal order, whites were at the top, the house servants were in the middle, and the field slaves were on the bottom. This was based on skin color because most alike(p)ly the house servants were biracial. It was seen that this order was ordained by theology and this was for the slaves own safety because they are like children. The slave master was like the father, to provide for the slaves while the slaves work for him.Whites often thought the slaves as stupid, just because they were not brought up the same way as them. In conclusion, the origins of social inequality came from the beginning of time when the Europeans first landed in the in the altogether World trying to discover new land. Instead they found Native Americans and completely judged them by their looks. During the time when the Catholic Church was over the state and the monarch had no power. Even with the rights of women, social inequality was there. These were factors for the inequ ality of the modern era.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Unemployment in America

Harry Icaza POL 101 4/11/10 Professor Karras Unemploy workforcet in the States Today in America unemployment is a genuinely big issue that everyone speaks ab unwrap. America has been digging itself into a in advance(p) recession ever since the collapse of banks and large institutions. All this led to bailing pop banks and trying to fix the financial crisis that we got ourselves into. There are people who shoot the Bush administration for the crisis that we were put into, only there are others who do non.Our new president, Barack Obama, is trying his best to put America back on track. Obamas plan is to re-play the current Deal, in order to constrain jobs for people who are under unemployment. While the election was still f and so oning place, president-elect Barack Obama saw that he was coming into office with a mount of domesticate and hardships in the future. According to the Weekly Standard No Country for strapping Men, explains that this recession is being called a man -cession by many economists.Not only that, but men have lost a lot more jobs than women in 2009, as you will see on the chart. It is close to 80% of jobs that men have lost. Obamas input signal plan offered infrastructure of the country in which it would give jobs to many men who have lost their jobs. The stimulation megabucks consisted of jobs such as building and fixing roads, schools, and transportation. This made women around America stand up for themselves and wanted a change. They believed it was not right for Obama average to tar earn men for jobs, but they wanted him to target women as well.Women economists truly collected 600 signatures in order for the president-elect to provide new jobs in education, healthcare, etc. At the same time, more than 1,000 feminist historians signed an open earn urging Obama not to favor a heavily male-dominated field homogeneous construction, says Christina Hoff Sommers. Women tended to blame Obama a lot in this article due to the fill et of sole fact that he was only targeting men for jobs in his new stimulus plan.They spoke out for themselves and they got what they wanted. They convinced Obama too also help women get back in the workplace in order to help the economy. As you can see now the economy is running fairly well from when it use to be back in 2008. In Mandating Unemployment, the presidential campaigner John Kerry issued that he wanted to increase the minimum earnings to $7, and a lot of people went in utter shock. Many believed that if the minimum lucre is raised to $7 that it would hurt all small businesses.Kerry made it very clear that every time the minimum wage was raised that it did not hurt anyone. Kerry wants more Americans that are poorer for the economy to flow better. Small employers and grasp intensive-businesses, notes the National Restaurant Association, are the most impacted by mandated entry-level wage increases, says The New American. Kerry believes that the increase in the wage would help a lot of women in the workplace. Minimum wage is never a bad thing, explains the New American.It keeps bread on the table for the average family just to survive for the calendar week or a couple of days. Many Americans put blame on Kerry due to the fact that if he wants to raise the minimum wage to $7, wherefore cant he raise to $15 or $50 an hour. People can live a little better if were to be raised a little higher. Personally, I would believe the frame of the stimulus package helping the women get jobs in education and healthcare. It sounds legit that women fought for Obama to help them out in this difficult time.

Kush, Meroe, and Nubia

Archeologists defy confirmed the inhabitation of the Nile above Aswan in the Paleolithic period that lasted to a greater extent that 60,000 years of the Sudanese history. By the 8th millennium BC, during the Neolithic era, flock had settled in the brick houses and their economic life was characterized by fishing, hunting on river Nile, cattle herding and grain gathering. The skeletal remains give an evidence of unify mingled with the Mediterranean people and the Negroid during the Neolithic period that has existed until today.The Yankee Sudan dodderyest history evidence originates from the Egyptian sources that described the land upstream beginning from the first cataract as wretched or Cush. For 2000 year and more in the time of old Kingdom, the economic, political and social life of the central Nile arena was influenced by the Egyptians, even as the political power of the Egyptian waned in the Cushite, the Egyptians still had a substantial influence in the Cushite way of l ife.For some centuries, the Egyptian caravan exchanged grain for ivory, carnelian, hide and incense with Cushite. Slaves and halcyon were highly valued by the Egyptian traders. The Egyptian penetrated the Cush in the ticker acres afterwards construction of fort at Sammah to guard the grand flow from Wawat mines.Asian nomads that were referred to as Hyksos invaded Egypt destroying many links to the Cush in close to 1720 BC. During the govern of Pharaoh Ahmose 1, Egypt revived its political power during the New Kingdom around 1110BC and took the Cush as one of its provinces however there were Egyptian tributary districts as removed as blue and white Nile and red sea. After gaining full defend over the Cush, the Cush adapted e real way of life and temples became their center of holiness up to the sixth century after the overture of Christianity.By the eleventh century, the new kingdom had collapsed, got divided and Cush emerged again as an independent kingdom that was gover ned from Napata. The Cush Kingdom conquered and ruled Egypt between 750 and 740 BC after which Egypt was re-united. Confrontation between the Assyrians and the Egyptians in 688-663BC resulted to Cush Pharaoh retaliating returning to dynasty in Napata where he originally ruled from previous to the unification of Egypt. In 590 BC, the Cush court was compelled to move to Meroe, a safer place than Napata due to the Egypt attack as it tried to regain its control over Cush again. Meroe developed for several centuries independent of Egypt and extended its dynasty to the present day Khartoum from the 3rd cataract located at Sawba.The pharaoh traditions still persisted in Meroe, a well managed irrigation governance sustained the huge growing nation at Meroe. By the initiatory century BC, there was development of the Meroitic script that was similar to the indigenous Egyptian script. The succession system at Meroe was not necessarily hereditary and circus tent was passed from brother to sister or to brother and selection of the queen was very crucial to smooth succession. The Cush fell after it was invade by the vulturine Blemmyes who were nomads but Meroe continued to be with contact with the Indians and Arabs.By the 2nd century, the Nobatae occupied the pairing of Cush at West Bank, this was subsidized by the Romans as a caramel brown between the Blemmyes and then the Axum in the 5th century, now the current Ethiopia that baffle and demolished the city of Meroe ad there from Meroe kingdom ceased. In the 6th century, three states that were descendants of Meroe Kingdom emerged these were Nobatia, Muqurra and Alwa.These kingdoms used Greek titles to rule the Meroetic population in imitation of the Byzantine Court. Missionaries started to preach in Nobatia in 540 AD and the Nubian kings were converted to Monophysite Christianity that was being practiced in Egypt, many bishops and sacred leaders were consecrated in Egypt. The Mediterranean civilization was rekin dled by the coming of Christianity.The use of Greek in liturgy led to development of the Nubian nomenclature that combined both the Coptic and old meroitic scripts. The Nubian kingdoms survived many centuries but with the reaching of Arabs in 640 and subsequent conquering of Egypt posed a threat to these Christian kingdoms. Historians believe that the Muqurra and Nobatia kingdoms were forced to merge by the Arabs to form the Dunqula kingdom around 700 this resulted to isolation of the Nubian church since Egypt became dominated by the Muslims.The introduction and get around of Islam after Muhammads death lead to division between the south and nitrogen Sudan society. Islam encouraged economic growth, political stability and education development to its followers. Islam was spread to the east and north by the Arab armies who also attacked the Nubian territory in 642 and 652 thereby demolishing its cathedral.Though with continued arabization of the Nile valley, there were tension be tween the Arabs and Nubian territory and the resulted to a peace treaty which encouraged trade between the two diametral sides and other regions. This lead to emergence of two Arab speaking groups, the Juhayna and the Jaali. These groups aided in bringing down the Nubian territory.The Nubian territories remained independent up to the 13th century when they were overruled by the Muslims due expansion of Islam to the continuous intermarriages between them and Arabs which resulted to the dark age of Christianity as slavery intensified. This forced the Nubian communities to seek Arab protectors for fear of their security. The Islam was not part of the old Nubian territory until15th to 16th centuryREFERENCEKush, Meroe and Nubia, retrieved on 13th, October, 2007, available at www.shsu.edu/his_ncp/Sudan.html

Monday, January 14, 2019

Marketing Evaluation

MARKETING PLAN EVALUATION WORKSHEETS Your task is to describe and evaluate the sell plan of an automobile brand and model of your choice. For the securities diligenceing aspect of your paygrade rivet on a particular model non the upstanding company for example consider the Chevrolet Camaro, non GM as a whole. For the postal service compend you will need to consider more than serious ad hoc model, i. e. what is the occurrence of GM as a whole and how is this impacting the merchandising of your particular model. You focus should be primarily Canada while recognizing that for the situation summary especially, there may be issues globally (e. . world economy) that will be relevant. These worksheets atomic number 18 designed to assist you in your project. Worksheets be a efficacious tool because they help to ensure that important development is not omitted from your evaluation. reply the questions on these worksheets will enable you to 1. Organize and building the d ata and study you collect during the situation analysis. 2. Use this information to better understand your unwaverings strengths and weaknesses and to arrive it off the opportunities and threats that exist in the merchandising environment. 3. rank if goals and objectives that capitalize on strengths. . draw if a marketing system that creates rivalrous advantages. 5. aim and critique a plan for consumeing the marketing scheme. By downloading these worksheets in an electronic format, you will be able to throw the outline or add additional information that is relevant to your situation. Remember that there is no one best personal manner to organize an evaluation of a marketing plan. The outline was designed to get out an analytical framework and to be flexible enough to accommodate the unique(p) characteristics of the company you be reviewing.It is possible that not everything in the worksheets will give way equally to your company. You could start by reviewing Figure 2. 6, the overview of the marketing planning address found on page 62 of the text. You should similarly review send screen 2. 2 and appendix 2 of your text. As you bang the worksheets, you should refer back to the text of the chapters as suggested throughout. In completing the situation analysis section, be sure to be as comprehensive as possible. The viability of your analysis depends on how well you obtain identified all of the relevant environmental issues.Likewise, as you complete the analysis, you should be accurate and rea constituteic about the firms characteristics. Do not attribute strengths to the firm that it does really does not possess. Being accurate in like manner goes for your calling of weaknesses. I. Executive Summary The executive summary is a lineation of the overall evaluation. The executive summary is easier to write if you do it last, after you have written the entire evaluation . accommodate a description of the fruit, the fag market, and the need for it in the market. You should give an overview of the main points of your evaluation.Most importantly, keep in intelligence that this is your opportunity to sell your marketing plan and entice your audience to register the details of the report. Company Description and Input from Corporate Strategies (pp. 45 54) Include a description of the companys recent history and successes and bear on briefly upon the dodge for the organization as a whole. This may allow elements such as Mission Corporate objectives Strategic Business whole (SBU) objectives (Figure 2. 1 on page 46 illustrates the stages in formulating a strategy for the company as a whole. )III. Situation summary A situation analysis considers the internal circumstances of the organization or intersection point, the external environment, competitive activity, and characteristics of the customer that may be relevant to the marketing plan. A situation analysis includes Internal analysis Environmental analysis Custome r analysis Competitive analysis A. Internal epitome Review of marketing goals and objectives order the firms legitimate marketing goals and objectives. State whether these goals and objectives are Consistent with the firms missionConsistent with recent changes in the marketing or customer environments Leading to expected performance outcomes (sales volume, market share, profitability, awareness, brand preference) Review of present-day(prenominal) marketing performance absorb the firms afoot(predicate) performance compared to other firms in the industry. Is the performance of the industry as a whole improving or declining? Why? If the firms performance is declining, what is the most in all probability cause (e. g. , environmental changes, flawed strategy, poor implementation)?Review of current and anticipate organizational resources report the current state of the firms organizational resources (e. g. , financial, capital, human, experience, relationships with key suppliers or customers). How are the levels of these resources likely to change in the emerging? If resource levels are expected to change How dissolve the firm leverage additional resources to foregather customer inescapably better than competitors? How can the firm compensate for future constraints on its resources? Review of current and anticipated cultural and structural issuesIn cost of marketing strategy development and implementation, describe the positive and negative aspects of the current and anticipated culture of the firm. Examples could include The firms overall customer orientation (or neglect thereof) The firms emphasis on short-term vs. long-run planning Willingness of the culture to assume change Internal politics and power struggles The overall position and grandeur of the marketing function Changes in key executive positions General employee comfort and morale B. Environmental AnalysisReview Chapter 4 Economic Growth and Stability Identify the oecumenical econom ic conditions of the country, region, province, and local area in which the firm operates Political, Legal, and restrictive Issues Identify any political activities that affect the firm or the industry Changes in elected officials (domestic or foreign) Industry (lobbying) groups Consumer groups Changes in Technology Identify slipway that ever-changing technology has affected the firms customers Identify ways that changing technology has affected the way the firm or the industry operatesIdentify current technologies that the firm is not using to the fullest potential Identify future technologies that may increase the risk of product obsolescence Sociocultural Trends Identify changes in societys demographics and determine that will affect the firm or the industry (if this becomes too broad, focus on the firms target customers) Explain the changes that shifting demographics and values will have on the firms Identify any problems or opportunities that may be created by changes in the cultural diversity of the firms customers and employeesIdentify any ecological issues (pollution, recycling, susceptibility conservation) that the firm or industry is facing Identify the ethical and companionable responsibility issues that the firm or industry is facing C. Customer Analysis Review Chapters 6 &038 7 There are seven general questions that marketers should ask about their customers 1. Who are our actual and potential customers? 2. Why do they pervert our product? 3. Why do others not buy our product? 4. Where do our customers buy our product? 5. How do they buy it? 6. When do they buy it? 7. What do they do with our product?Who are the firms current and potential customers? separate the important identifying characteristics of the firms current and potential customers Demographic Geographic Psychographic Product enjoyment Identify the important players in the purchase process for the firms products Purchasers (actual act of purchase) Users (actual product user) I nfluencers (influence the decision, even out recommendations) Financial responsibility (who pays the bill? ) What do customers do with the firms products? Where do customers purchase the firms products?Identify any trends in purchase patterns across these outlets (e. g. , how e-commerce has, or could, change the way the firms products are purchased). When do customers purchase the firms products? Factors under the firms aver Factors not under the firms control Why (and how) do customers select the firms products? Describe the basic benefits provided by the firms products relative to competing products Describe the degree to which customers needs are macrocosm fulfilled by the firms products relative to competing products Describe how customers needs are expected to change in the future.Describe the relative importance of transactional (short, one-time) vs. relational (long-term, ongoing) put back processes when customers make a purchase Why do potential customers not purchase t he firms products? After answering these seven questions, then you can imagine at segmentation and attitude analysis (see p. 267 for positioning analysis and positioning maps). D. Competitive Analysis (pp. 121-12, 295, 387) Identify the firms major competitors (brand, product, generic) Identify the characteristics of the firms major competitors be given any potential (future) competitors not identified in the preceding.IV. SWOT Analysis The previous analyses should have uncovered the essential elements for a SWOT analysis. This is fundamentally a summary of the previous findings, and its format may shed upgrade light on the current company situation (pp. 62 63 see Blackboard Things to consider for a SWOT and PESTEL analysis also review concepts from Comm 101). A. Strengths Strength 1 _________________________________________________________ How does this strength enable the firm to amass customers needs? Does this strength make the firm different from (better than) its competi tors? Repeat as needed to develop a complete list of strengths) B. Weaknesses Weakness 1 ________________________________________________________ How does this weakness prevent the firm from meeting customers needs? Does this weakness make the firm different from (worse than) its competitors? (Repeat as needed to develop a complete list of weaknesses) C. Opportunities Opportunity 1 _______________________________________________________ How is this opportunity related to share customers needs? How can the firm capitalize on this opportunity in the short- and long-term? Repeat as needed to develop a complete list of opportunities) D. Threats Threat 1 ___________________________________________________________ How is this threat related to serving customers needs? How can the firm prevent this threat from limiting its capabilities in the short- and long-term? (Repeat as needed to develop a complete list of threats) F. Matching, Converting, Minimizing, and Avoiding Strategies Describe ways that the firm does or can match its strengths to its opportunities to create capabilities in serving customers needs.Does the firm convert its weaknesses into strengths or its threats into opportunities? If not, how can the firm minimize or avoid its weaknesses and threats? Does the firm possess any major liabilities (unpersuaded weaknesses that match unconverted threats) or limitations (unconverted weaknesses or threats that match opportunities)? If so, are these liabilities and limitations obvious to customers? Can the firm do anything about its liabilities or limitations, especially those that impact the firms ability to distribute customers needs? V.Marketing Objectives and Strategies from your analysis, what do you infer as the companys marketing objectives? A. Marketing Goal A __________________________________________________ Objective A1 ______________________________________________________ Be as specific as youre able. Objective A2 __________________________________ ____________________ Be as specific as youre able. B. Marketing Goal B __________________________________________________ Objective B1 ______________________________________________________ Be as specific as youre able.Objective B2 ______________________________________________________ Be as specific as youre able. (Repeat as needed to develop a complete list of goals and objectives) VI. Marketing Strategies based on your observations of the company activity, what are the marketing strategies being pursued? A. primal Target Market and Marketing Mix (pp. 106-109) Primary target market ________________________________________________ Review Chapter 7 This targets primary need Identifying characteristics (demographics, geography, psychographics) purchase/shopping habits and preferencesConsumption/disposition characteristics Product _______________________________________________ Review Chapters 8 &038 9 Major features and benefits Sustainable competitive advantage Differentiation / p ositioning strategy Brand name and packaging Customer service strategy complemental products set ________________________________________________ Review Chapter 10 Pricing objectives Description of per unit be Discount/markdown policy Distribution ____________________________________________ Review Chapter 11 General emerge chain strategy Intermediaries and channels to be usedElements of customer gubbins Promotion _____________________________________________ Review Chapters 12 &038 13 General IMC strategy IMC objectives and figure Elements of the advertising/publicity strategy Elements of the personal selling strategy Elements of trade sales promotion (push) strategy Elements of consumer sales promotion (pull) strategy Elements of the sponsorship strategy B. Is there a Secondary Target Market? If so, repeat the preceding(prenominal) analysis VII. Marketing Implementation A. Structural Issues What organizational structure is being used to implement the marketing strategyDescr ibe any changes to the firms structure needed to implement the marketing strategy (e. g. , add/delete positions, change lines of authority, change reporting relationships). B. Tactical Marketing Activities what is the company doing specifically to implement the strategy that you have identified? Specific Tactical Activities Product Activities 1. 2. 3. Pricing Activities 1. 2. 3. Distribution Activities 1. 2. 3. IMC Activities 1. 2. 3. VIII. Evaluation and Control A. Formal Marketing Control Describe the types and levels of formal control mechanisms that should be used to ensure the implementation of the marketing plan. Summary and Conclusions Write approximately one to three paragraphs summarizing your analysis and providing a broad overview of the key actions recommended.

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

The Twilight Saga 5: Midnight Sun 8. Ghost

I did non witness much of Jaspers guests for the devil fair weatherny days that they were in Forks. I simply went home at all(prenominal) so that Esme wouldnt worry. Otherwise, my existence expected to a greater extent softred that of a specter than a lamia. I h all oered, invisible in the shadows, where I could copy the object of my love and obsession where I could see her and hear her in the give ears of the comfortable tenders who could walk finished the temperateness be attitude her, some sequences by the bye brushing the covert of her devolve with their declare. She never reacted to such contact lens their hands were precisely as change as hers.The enforced absence from direct had never been a trial equal this before. meet the sun seemed to sire her happy, so I could not resent it in any(prenominal) case much. Anything that pleased her was in my good g endures.Monday morning, I eavesdropped on a conversation that had the say-so to destroy my co nfidence and identify the epoch spent by from her a torture. As it ended up, though, it rather made my day.I had to feel some slender mention for mike Newton he had not simply given up and slunk forth to nurse his wounds. He had more courage than Id given him credit for. He was sack to try again.Bella got to school quite primal and, seeming intent on en pleasureing the sun dapple it passed, sat at sensation of the seldom used picnic benches spot she waited for the first bell to ring. Her cop caught the sun in unexpected ways, giving attain a reddish shine that I had not anticipated.microphone set up her in that respect, doodling again, and was stir at his good luck.It was agonizing to save be able to settle, powerless, bound to the forests shadows by the bright sun airheaded.She greeted him with plenty enthusiasm to view as him ecstatic, and me the opposite.See, she comparables me. She wouldnt smile desire that if she didnt. I cipher she wanted to go to the dance with me. enjoy whats so important in SeattleHe perceived the change in her fuzz. I never noticed before your fuzz has red in it.I accident wholey uprooted the young spruce tree my hand was resting on when he pinched a strand of her hair between his fingers. plainly in the sun, she said. To my difficult satisfaction, she cringed apart from him slenderly when he tucked the strand foot her ear.It took Mike a minute to attain up his courage, wasting some clock duration on small-scale tattle.She reminded him of the essay we all had due on Wednesday. From the faintly complacent expression on her face, hers was already d i. Hed forget altogether, and that severely diminished his free time.Dang witless essay.Finally he got to the point my teething were clenched so hard they could direct pulverized granite and crimson accordingly, he couldnt manufacture himself ask the question breakright. I was qualifying to ask if you wanted to go expose.Oh, she said. at tha t place was a brief silence.Oh? What does that mean? Is she passing venture to yes? Wait I guess I didnt actually ask.He swallowed hard.Well, we could go to dinner or somethingand I could work on it latishr. Stupid that wasnt a question either.MikeThe agony and fury of my jealousy was e precise w rap as powerful as it had been last week. I broke another(prenominal) tree stressful to hold myself here. I wanted so badly to race across the campus, too fast for human look, and snatch her up to steal her away from the boy that I hated so much in this moment I could have kill him and enjoyed it.Would she say yes to him?I dont return that would be the best idea.I blow overd again. My rigid be relaxed.Seattle was provided an excuse, after all. Shouldnt have asked. What was I fantasy process? Bet its that freak, CullenWhy? he asked sullenly.I think she hesitated. And if you ever repeat what Im face right forthwith I lead cheerfully beat you to death I japeed out loud a t the estimable of a death threat advance with her lips. A jay shrieked, startled, and launched itself away from me. good-tempered I think that would hurt Jessicas mites.Jessica? What? But Oh. Okay. I guess So Huh.His thoughts were no longer coherent.Really, Mike, are you blind?I echoed her sentiment. She shouldnt expect twoone to be as perceptive as she was, in effect(p) straight withdraw really this caseful was beyond obvious. With as much bicker as Mike had had working himself up to ask Bella out, did he imagine it wasnt just as difficult for Jessica? It mustiness be selfishness that made him blind to others. And Bella was so unselfish, she proverb eitherthing.Jessica. Huh. Wow. Huh. Oh, he managed to say.Bella used his confusion to make her exit.Its time for class, and I cant be late again.Mike became an unreliable viewpoint from because on. He found, as he dour the idea of Jessica around and around in his head, that he rather liked the thought of her finding h im attractive. It was second place, not as good as if Bella had matt-up that way. Shes cute, though, I guess. Decent body. A bird in the handHe was off then, on to new fantasies that were just as vernacular as the ones approximately Bella, but straightway they only if irritated rather than infuriated. How infinitesimal he deserved either missy they were intimately interchangeable to him. I bideed gain of his head after that. When she was out of sight, I curled up against the cool railcarcass of an enormous madrone tree and I danced from mind to mind, keeping her in sight, ceaselessly sprightly when Angela weber was available to opine through. I wished there was someway to thank the Weber young lady for simply world a splendid person. It made me feel break off to think that Bella had one friend worthy having.I watched Bellas face from whichever angle I was given, and I could see that she was sad again. This strike me I thought the sun would be enough to keep her smiling. At lunch, I saw her glance time and time again toward the assoil Cullen table, and that thrilled me. It gave me hope. maybe she missed me, too.She had plans to go out with the other girls I mechanically mean my own surveillance but these plans were postponed when Mike invited Jessica out on the date hed planned for Bella.So I went straight to her home instead, doing a quick sweep of the woods to make sure no one flagitious had wandered too close. I knew Jasper had warned his one-time brother to revoke the town citing my insanity as both(prenominal) explanation and warning but I wasnt taking any chances. Peter and Charlotte had no heading of causing animosity with my family, but intentions were changeable things all right, I was overdoing it. I knew that.As if she knew I was watching, as if she took forgiveness on the agony I felt when I couldnt see her, Bella came out to the choke offyard after a long hour indoors. She had a declare in her hand and a blanket u nder her offshoot.Silently, I climbed into the higher(prenominal) branches of the closest tree over expression the yard.She air the blanket on the damp foraging and then lay on her raise and started flipping through the worn book, as if trying to find her place. I read over her shoulder. Ah more classics. She was an Austen fan.She read readily, crossing and recrossing her ankles in the air. I was watching the sunlight and wind play in her hair when her body suddenly stiffened, and her hand froze on the page. All I saw was that shed reached chapter three when she virtually grabbed a thick section of pages and shoved them over.I caught a glance of a designation page, Mans welkin Park. She was starting a new tosh the book was a compilation of novels. I wondered why shed switched stories so abruptly.Just a few moments later, she slammed the book angrily shut. With a fierce scowl on her face, she beseeched the book aside and flipped over onto her substantiate. She took a ca balistic breath, as if to calm herself, pushed her sleeves up and unopen her eyes. I remembered the novel, but I couldnt think of anything offensive in it to upset her. some other mystery. I sighed.She lay very still, sorrowful just erst to yank her hair away from her face. It fanned out over her head, a river of chestnut. And then she was motionless again. Her public demonstrateion slowed. After several long transactions her lips began to tremble.Mumbling in her sleep.Impossible to resist. I listened as far out as I could, catching instances in the houses nearby. devil tablespoons of flourone cup of take outCmon Get it through the hoop Aw, cmonRed, or blueor maybe I should wear something more casual at that place was no one close by. I jumped to the ground, landing silently on my toes. This was very wrong, very ri toss. How condescendingly Id once judged Emmett for his detached ways and Jasper for his lack of discipline and now I was consciously flouting all the rules wi th a wild abandon that made their lapses look like nothing at all. I used to be the responsible one.I sighed, but crept out into the sunniness, regardless.I avoided looking at myself in the suns glare. It was bad enough that my splutter was stone and inhuman in shadow I didnt want to look at Bella and myself side by side in the sunlight. The difference between us was already insurmountable, painful enough without this attend also in my head.But I couldnt ignore the rainbow sparkles that reflected onto her skin when I got close. My maunder locked at the sight. Could I be any more of a freak? I imagined her terror if she opened her eyes nowI started to retreat, but she mumbled again, holding me there.Mmm Mmm. nobody in recountigible. Well, I would wait for a bit.I carefully steal her book, stretching my arm out and holding my breath while I was close, just in case. I started breathing again when I was a few yards away, tasting the way the sunshine and open air affected her scent . The enkindle seemed to sweeten the smell. My throat flamed with desire, the fire perfumed and fierce again because I had been away from her for too long.I spent a moment controlling that, and then forcing myself to breathe through my nose I permit her book fall open in my hands. Shed started with the first book I flipped through the pages quickly to the third chapter of Sense and Sensibility, meddlesome for something potentially offensive in Austens overly polite prose.When my eyes stopped au turkey cockatically at my name the character Edward Ferrars being introduced for the first time Bella spoke again.Mmm. Edward. She sighed.This time I did not fear that she had awoken. Her voice was just a low, wistful murmur. non the scream of fear it would have been if shed seen me now. joy warred with self-loathing. She was still dreaming of me, at least.Edmund. Ahh. similarly.closeEdmund?Ha She wasnt dreaming of me at all, I realized blackly. The self-loathing returned in force. She was dreaming of fictitious characters. So much for my conceit. I replaced her book, and stole back into the cover of the shadows where I belonged.The afternoon passed and I watched, feeling helpless again, as the sun slowly sank in the sky and the shadows crawled across the lawn toward her. I wanted to push them back, but the darkness was inevitable the shadows took her. When the light was gone, her skin looked too pale ghostly. Her hair was dark again, almost black against her face.It was a frightening thing to watch like witnessing Alices visions come to fruition. Bellas steady, strong heartbeat was the only reassurance, the sound that kept this moment from feeling like a nightmare.I was improve when her father arrived home.I could hear little from him as he drove blue the street toward the house. Some vague painful sensationin the past, something from his day at work. chance mixed with hunger I guessed that he was looking forward to dinner. But his thoughts were so quiet and contained that I could not be sure I was right I only got the gist of them.I wondered what her become sounded like what the genetic combination had been that had create her so uniquely.Bella started awake, jerking up to a sitting position when the tires of her fathers car hit the brick driveway. She stared around herself, seeming confused by the unexpected darkness. For one brief moment, her eyes touched the shadows where I hid, but they flickered quickly away.Charlie? she asked in a low voice, still peering into the trees surrounding the small yard.The door of his car slammed shut, and she looked to the sound. She got to her feet quickly and gathered her things, casting one more look back toward the woods. I go awayd into a tree closer to the back window near the small kitchen, and listened to their even outing. It was interesting to compare Charlies words to his sluggish thoughts. His love and concern for his only girl were nearly overwhelming, and yet his words were ever so terse and casual. Most of the time, they sat in companionable silence.I comprehend her discuss her plans for the spare-time activity evening in sort Angeles, and I refined my own plans as I listened. Jasper had not warned Peter and Charlotte to stay clear of larboard Angeles. Though I knew that they had fed recently and had no intention of hunting any where in the locality of our home, I would watch her, just in case. After all, there were always others of my kind out there. And then, all those human dangers that I had never much considered before now.I heard her worry aloud to the highest degree leaving her father to prepare dinner alone, and smiled at this proof to my theory yes, she was a care-taker.And then I left, have it awaying I would return when she was asleep.I would not exceed on her privacy the way the peeping tom would have. I was here for her protection, not to sneer at her in the way Mike Newton no doubt would, were he agile enough to move thro ugh the treetops the way I could. I would not treat her so crassly.My house was empty when I returned, which was fine by me. I didnt miss the confused or disparaging thoughts, questioning my sanity. Emmett had left a line of credit stuck to the newel post.Football at the Rainier field cmon Please?I found a pen and scrawled the word sorry to a lower place his plea. The teams were even without me, in any case.I went for the shortest of hunting trips, contenting myself with the smaller, gentler creatures that did not taste as good as the hunters, and then changed into recent clothes before I ran back to Forks.Bella did not sleep as wellhead tonight. She thrashed in her blankets, her face sometimes worried, sometimes sad. I wondered what nightmare haunted herand then realized that perhaps I really didnt want to know.When she spoke, she mostly muttered derogatory things roughly Forks in a glum voice. single once, when she sighed out the words Come back and her hand twitched open a unverbalized plea did I have a chance to hope she might be dreaming of me. The next day of school, the last day the sun would hold me prisoner, was much the same as the day before. Bella seemed even gloomier than yesterday, and I wondered if she would bow out of her plans she didnt seem in the mood.But, being Bella, she would probably assign her friends enjoyment above that of her own.She wore a deep blue blouse today, and the color set her skin off perfectly, making it look like fresh cream.School ended, and Jessica agreed to clean house the other girls up Angela was going, too, for which I was grateful.I went home to get my car. When I found that Peter and Charlotte were there, I decided could bear up under to give the girls an hour or so for a head start. I would never be able to bear following behind them, driving at the f number limit hideous thought.I came in through the kitchen, nodding vaguely at Emmetts and Esmes greetings as I passed by everyone in the front ro om and went straight to the piano. Ugh, hes back. Rosalie, of course.Ah, Edward. I hate to see him suffering so. Esmes joy was becoming marred by concern. She should be concerned. This love story she envisioned for me was careening toward a tragedy more perceptibly every moment.Have fun in Port Angeles tonight, Alice thought cheerfully. Let me know when Im allowed to talk to Bella.Youre pathetic. I cant believe you missed the game last night just to watch somebody sleep, Emmett grumbled.Jasper paid me no mind, even when the vocal music I play came out a little more turbulently than Id intended. It was an old song, with a familiar ancestor impatience. Jasper was saying goodbye to his friends, who eyed me curiously.What a strange creature, the Alice-sized, white-blond Charlotte was thinking.And he was so convention and pleasant the last time we met.Peters thoughts were in sync with hers, as was usually the case.It must be the animals. The lack of human kindred drives them mad eve ntually, he was concluding. His hair was just as fair as hers, and almost as long. They were very similar debar for size, as he was almost as tall as Jasper in both look and thought. A well matched pair, Id always thought.Everyone but Esme stopped thinking about me after a moment, and I played in more subdued tones so that I would not attract notice.I did not pay attention to them for a long while, just letting the music distract me from my unease. It was hard to have the girl out of sight and mind. I only returned my attention to their conversation when the goodbyes grew more final.If you see Maria again, Jasper was saying, a little warily, tell her I wish her well.Maria was the vampire who had created both Jasper and Peter Jasper in the latter(prenominal) half of the nineteenth century, Peter more recently, in the nineteen forties. Shed looked Jasper up once when we were in Calgary. It had been an eventful visit wed had to move immediately. Jasper had politely asked her to k eep her distance in the future.I dont imagine that will risk soon, Peter said with a laugh Maria was undeniable dangerous and there was not much love addled between her and Peter. Peter had, after all, been instrumental in Jaspers defection. Jasper had always been Marias favorite she considered it a minor detail that she had once planned to kill him. But, should it happen, I certainly will.They were quiver hands then, preparing to depart. I let the song I was playing trail off to an unsatisfying end, and got hastily to my feet.Charlotte, Peter, I said, nodding.It was nice to see you again, Edward, Charlotte said doubtfully. Peter just nodded in return.Madman, Emmett threw after me.Idiot, Rosalie thought at the same time.Poor boy. Esme.And Alice, in a chiding tone. Theyre going straight east, to Seattle. No where near Port Angeles. She showed me the proof in her visions.I pretended I hadnt heard that. My excuses were already flimsy enough.Once in my car, I felt more relaxed the half-hardy purr of the engine Rosalie had boosted for me last year, when she was in a better mood was soothing. It was a relief to be in motion, to know that I was getting closer to Bella with every mile that flew away under my tires.

Monday, January 7, 2019

Longitudinal Analysis Using Panel Data for Assessing Seasonality Effects on the Food Security Situation in Tajikistan 2005 Hbs

Issue Longitudinal analytic thinking employ impanel information for esteeming seasonal workerity effect on the prov poleer gage situation in Tajikistan 2005 HBS Tajikistan Longitudinal epitome utilise panel selective information for assessing seasonality effectuate on the f ar security situation in Tajikistan 2005 HBS RAMASAWMY, Seevalingum FAO Statistics Division, Rome. Italy folk income and disbursal survey (HIES) usu exclusively(prenominal)y collects aliment selective information from phratrys at only wiz period which may refer to matchless week, two weeks or angiotensin-converting enzyme calendar month. near HIES extend the field work every enjoin the entire period of hotshot course of instruction to account for whatever seasonal effects of category expense particularly regimen disbursal. The survey estimates assume seasonal effects cancelled prohibited in bombastic sorts of sign of the zodiacs only if not at the train of the individual mena ge. Thus, the inter- family line fun estimated on the primer of such data would tend to acknowledge the seasonal effects. hitherto, the Tajikistan firm Budget appreciate (HBS) presents a particular characteristic that it collects white plague and income data from the corresponding home all oer a long period of era.The longitudinal blueprint survey accounts for all variations including the seasonal effects when analysed oer the months of the gradely period. This topic presents some form psychoanalysis of viands security statistics derived from the 2005 Tajikistan abode panel periodic solid viands inspiration data collected from the sample of 925 ho drillholds and evaluate the impact of the variation of the distri unlession of the sustenance phthisis in the viands security statistics estimates. Keywords provender pulmonary tuberculosis data, nutrition security statistics, Panel data, victual make up ones mindic nada wasting disease, aliment Deprivat ion, Critical intellectual nourishment p everyplacety, Coefficient of variation.Acknowledgements FAO (Statistics Division and nourishment auspices info for Action Programme) for technical assistance and the European Commwholey for financial support. 1. BACKGROUND Tajikistan is a landlocked country, wide-rangingly mountainous and sparsely inhabited, 90 per centumageage is mountainous and the radical state splits the country into tetrad realms (Ob fitlys) and one independent metropolis, the internal gravid capital of Tajikistan. save seven per centum of the land ara is arable cotton and wheat argon the main important crops.Aluminium is the moot country re line of descent in concert with former(a) limited mineral resources such as silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. With abundant water resources, it possesses much hydropower facilities which atomic number 18 however not puff up distributed among its creation. The cultivated war (1992-97) severely damaged the a lready weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. piece Tajikistan has experienced quiet economic garnering since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the world continues to live in p all all everywherety. Economic growth reached 10. pct in 2004 but dropped to ogdoad percent in 2005 and to 7 percent in 2006. Tajikistans economic situation, however, remains delicate ascribable to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread un employment, and the external debt burden. Unemployment is formally estimated at 30 percent, bandage the token is likely to be much mel let out. wish of alternative sources of livelihoods continue to exacerbate household viands insecurity and results in under-employment in the agricultural sector, slice a galactic number of young men seasonally or definitely migrate for employment in another(prenominal)wise CIS countries. in that respect is a spirited mobility of th e working race to Russia, where to a greater extent than half a million of the community are currently working. The 2007 Tajikistan existence was rough seven million nearly 70 percent live in unpolished field of battles. The annual population growth is close to 2 percent. 2. OBJECTIVES, METHODS AND DATA The paper analyses the trends of fare security statistics derived from the periodic and dirtly aliment exercise data of the Tajikistan 2005 HBS. It similarly evaluates the trend variations of inequality measures of dietetical postal code onsumption delinquent(p) to other factors such as income and athletic field of vestibule and their effects on the metre of regimen lack. The Tajikistan State Committee of Statistics has been conducting household budget survey (HBS) based on the Soviet methodology collecting household consumption spending from a determined sample of households over time. A across the country representative sample of 925 households was selecte d from the 2000 population count data frame using the multi-stage stratification. farming(prenominal) and urban areas together with criteria of mountains, valley, uplands, scurvylands and country borders on the north and south were accounted for.The households were selected at the last stage using the available administrative data with regard to the composition of the household. Household detailed white plague including fodder and income data are collected using cursory records from the same 925 households over social classs since January 2000. separately household receives a monthly fillip equivalent to one dollar in local currency. The Tajikistan HBS collected consumption and expenditure data from 925 households over the year using eight different types of questionnaires which enable the appeal of complementary expenditure data on a cursory, monthly and quarterly basis. fare data are recorded in detail, stock at the start of the month for each solid nutrition item, pu rchases, own production, transfers, (aid, gifts, and so forth ) during the month on a passing(a) basis, and closing stock at the end of the month. Income is to a fault collected by sources on a daily and monthly basis. SCS uses a detailed nutrient conversion table covering dietetic verve, protein, fat and refined sugar value for computing nutrient value. The Tajikistan 2005 HBS monthly fodder consumption data together with the household income were analysed using the FAO statistical procedures of the diet security statistics module (FSSM).The paper compares the intellectual nourishment security statistics (FSS) estimates from the two sets of data to wit the twelve sets of monthly nutriment consumption data and the quarterly aggregated data of the 925 households. The forage consumption in name of dietetic nada and expenditure are examined together with the dietary cleverness social unit of measurement value at the theme take and by the tetrad main lands, Dushanbe, RPR, Sogd and Chatlon and by income quintiles. The inequality measure of intellectual nourishment assess is studied in much dilate to evaluate the variation of area of residence and income over the months of 2005.Measures of preponderance of hunger, intellectual nourishment passing and comminuted intellectual nourishment beggary are also discussed. Lastly the fodder expenditure piece of land of score consumption and the diet diversity are compared for the two sets of data. 3. food for thought SECURITY STATISTICS DERIVED USING THE LONGITUDINAL APPROACH. a. dietetic capacity consumption The fair(a) daily dietary susceptibility consumption ( downslope) of the Tajik was 2150 kcal in 2005. The declination by fields and income takes launched wide fluctuations over the months of the year 2005 as illustrated in excogitations 1 and 2 be paltry.The population of the capital city Dushanbe and RPR regions had write down DEC aims than the national aim during all the month s of the year. These two regions had low food production as Dushanbe is the capital city and RPR is the region of aluminum ores and had to rely on food imports from other local regions or imports from neighbouring countries. However, Sogd, the industrial region and Chatlon, the cotton and wheat growing region had DEC mellowed gearer than the national train well-nigh all the months of the year.These two regions convey good food availability as they contain the largest cropping areas cultivating crops such as potatoes, barley, melons, and so forth bod 1 Trends of DEC by Regions Figure 2 Trends of DEC by Income directs pic pic Analysing the DEC by daily per psyche income quintiles showed a gradual increase in the overall monthly train of dietary energy consumption from the utmost to the towering-pitchedest income population groups.The population of the triple lowest income groups had DEC below the national minimum dietary energy requirement (MDER) of 1880 kcal/ someone/ t wenty- quatern hours during all the months of the year. Those of the two spiritedest income quintiles had DEC tumesce above the national average DEC. The fluctuations in the DEC of the four lowest income groups over the months were small and less irregular than those detect among regions. However, the highest income population group had more enounce fluctuations which kept change order of magnitude over the months with peaks in march and October.The dietary energy consumption among the Tajik population related more to income levels than place of residence. The levels of DEC for the population of the first four income quintiles did not differ greatly in magnitude. The average daily per soulfulness income ranged from 0. 91 Somoni for the lowest quintile to 1. 91 Somoni for the quaternate one piece of music the highest quintile had a much higher(prenominal) average of 3. 20 Somoni. This group of high income population which were present in all the four regions may plausibly becharm those observed fluctuations.March and October 2005 were the two months registering high peaks in dietary energy consumption, plausibly linked to national socio-cultural or phantasmal events. More than 90 percent of Tajiks are Sunnis and were most probably fasting in October 2005 which was the month of Ramadan in Tajikistan. It is a well known fact that during that special unearthly month, in that respect is a high eruditeness and consumption of food in footing of both quality and quantities particularly among the high income levels households.In addition, there is much lot-out of food among the community with a large part of food given out by households and at the same time received by other households. However, the preserve of such data on food transfers did not take place, thus expiration its effect unknown. b. nutriment expenditure The national average daily per person financial determine of the food expenditure fluctuated over the months of the year with the lowest value (1. 12 Somoni) in February and the highest value (1. 68) in October when there was that overall high level of consumption.The analysis by regions showed that the population of Dushanbe had a relatively low level of dietary energy consumption, but food expenditure higher than the national level indicating that prices in the capital city were higher than in other parts of Tajikistan probably payable to a high importation of food products from other regions or countries. The industrial region of Sogd showed a high level of food expenditure ranging from 1. 17 to 1. 61 Somoni slightly higher than the average food spending in Dushanbe. The population of RPR had the overall lowest food expenditure (Figures 3).Figure 4 shows the monthly trends of food expenditure by income levels. Again the stratified differences from highest to lowest income quintile are clearly observed. Food expenditures for the population of the trio lowest income quintiles were lower than the national level for all the months of the year. The follow of money pass on food remained at near the same levels, but with an augment in October followed by a falloff in November and another increase in celestial latitude probably delinquent with the end of the year celebrations events.The population of the highest income quintile had progressively high food expenditures with peaks in the collar last months of the year of 2005. Figure 3 Trends of food expenses by Regions Figure 4 Trends of food expenses by Income levels pic pic Figure 4 shows the monthly trends of food expenditure by income levels. Again the hierarchical differences from highest to lowest income quintile are clearly observed.Food expenditures for the population of the three lowest income quintiles were lower than the national level for all the months of the year. The amount of money spent on food remained at almost the same levels, but with an increase in October followed by a decrease in November and another incr ease in December probably repayable with the end of the year celebrations events. The population of the highest income quintile had increasingly high food expenditures with peaks in the three last months of the year of 2005. c. dietary unit valueThe national average dietary unit value was 0. 57 Somoni per gram kcal. This value varied from 0. 55 Somoni for the months of February and March to 0. 63 Somoni in December. The population of the capital city Dushanbe had the highest dietary energy unit value over all months of the year of 2005, paying abnormal high values in the months of January (0. 71 Somoni) and October (0. 75 Somoni). Population of Sogd had also a high overall dietary energy unit value which change magnitude slowly over the months of 2005 (see Figure 5).It is surprising to note that the dietary unit value fell in all regions in the month of November to begin with going up again in December. This could probably be due(p) to a fall in food prices resulting in a sur plus of food items on the market due to the end of the spectral month of October. Figure 5 dietetical energy unit value by Regions Figure 6 regimenary energy unit value Income levels pic pic The dietary energy unit value showed marked increasing patterns over the months of the year when analysed by income levels with again a drop in the values in November followed by an increase in December. The lowest quintile population had an overall periodical dietary energy unit value of 0. 49 Somoni compared to a value of 0. 66 Somoni for the highest income quintile. d. Diet Diversity The divvy up of gibe calories of nutrients in congeries calories of dietary energy showed a protein deficiency diet when compared to the WHO norms (Figure 7). The share contribution of protein was nearly nine percent, while the Figure 7 allocate (%) of nutrients in total calories and WHO guidelines WHO minimum and utmost values are 10 and 15 percent respectively. The share contribution of fats was at heart the WHO norms, but the share contribution of carbohydrates (70 percent) was more towards the maximum value of 75 percent.Consumption of protein food sources such as pulses, fish, meat or dairy products were very low. pic The regional analysis of the share of protein calorie contribution to total calories is given in Figure 8 and showed large and uneven variations were observed among the regions over the months of the year.The population of Dushanbe were more protein deficient (almost below 9 percent in all months except July to September) than other regions while the population of RPR had relatively, though still deficient, higher protein consumption. in that location were two months (July and September) when there was increasing protein consumption in all regions probably due to availability of protein rich food products coming from the harvest seasons.There was no clear difference in the level of protein consumption among population groups of different income levels over the months of the year (Figure 9), except that all income groups showed the same increasing patterns over the months of July and September, before go down in October. This situation could be the due to the scarcity of high protein food products on the Tajikistan markets or highly preventive selling prices if available.Figure 8 per centum of protein calorie by Regions Figure 9 Share of protein calorie by Income levels pic pic e. Inequality. The statistical distribution of dietary energy consumption is take for granted to be lognormal and its variance is a scarper of the Coefficient of Variation (CVx). This CVx includes income and biological sources of variations of dietary energy consumption and is a measure of main course to food.The biological variation (CVr) accounts for factors such as sex age composition, body freight and physical activity of household members. The CVr is estimated as a value of 20 percent. Figure 10 CV of dietary energy consumption due to in come by 2005 living billet and Figure 10 gives the inequality of food overture due to income months computed for groups of households classified agree to the income deciles.The national CVx of dietary energy consumption (DEC) on periodical basis had a value of 30 percent which include a value of 22 percent corresponding to the CV of DEC due to income.The CVx values estimated for quarterly data differed marginally from the p.a. CVx. The estimated monthly CVx was less than the yearly CVx, except for the months of October and November. pic A striking posting is that the monthly inequality measures of DEC due to income were in most cases (except the three last months) less than the quarterly or yearly values which are inflated with other variations due to inter household, seasonal ( in spite of appearance quarter) and other non random factors.Those variations were analysed using the available 2005 longitudinal food data with among household factors of area of resid ence and income using a linear model of the log of dietary energy consumption with repeated measures (months). The analysis of variance results are shown below. pic The variation estimates in the rightmost column have been born-again to the original dietary energy consumption scale for better understanding.As expect area of residence ( arcadian and urban) and income levels (deciles) were solid sources of the surrounded by household variation (standard deviation of 2062 Kcal/ person/ twenty-four hour period).This variation reflects sources of variations not included in the model, the random variation and the undesirable variation due to sampling design and submissive errors.The within sources of variation were significant in time (months) and time within area of residence and time within income levels. The within household variation (standard deviation of 608 Kcal/person/day) was smaller than the amid household variation. However there is a significant source of variation due to seasonality. In this breeding one should take into account that the between household variation estimates may be over-estimated as result of the sampling design.This lead does not address on this design effect on the variation between households. In commonly used household survey design where the household persona period is of one month or less and households are allocated over a one-year survey period the sources of the within variation (month, month within area, month within income and error) is added to the survey estimates. This means that in NHS considering random allocation throughout the year add variation to the between household CV and hence over-estimate the prevalence of food going. f. Food privation.The longitudinal data of Tajikistan 2005 HBS was also analysed by comparing the food deprivation over the four living quarters to study the food consumption distribution and any improvement in the level of undernourishment over the one year period. tet rad percent of the population had moved out from the food deprived population over the year due to a 2 percent increase in the average daily dietary energy consumption and a three percent lay decrease in the coefficient of variation (CV) due to income from 31 to 28 percent. The MDER of 1880 kcal/person/day was the same for both quarters.Movements of population from food deprived population were observed in both urban and rural areas by two and six percent respectively. There were marginal increases in DEC were storied in both urban and rural areas, but the later registered a significant 5 dower point decrease in the CV due to income. While there were significant improvements among the population of the three lowest income quintiles, there were small set backs for the populations of the two highest quintiles groups due mainly to an around 2 percent fall in their dietary energy consumption (Figures 11 and 12).Figure 11 Food deprivation (%) by RegionsFigure 12 Food deprivation (%) b y Income levels pic pic The prevalence of food critical poverty which measures food income deprivation showed a marginal fall of 1 percentage point at national level from quarter one to quarter 4 of the year 2005 (Figure 13).Figure 13 Food critical poverty (%) by quarters of 2005 national and sub national levels pic The prevalence of critical food poverty fluctuated over the four quarters of the year.There was a high prevalence of food poverty in the second quarter at the national and sub national levels. It wherefore fell in the following quarters. However, food critical poverty in urban areas was higher than rural areas due to the food availability at lower prices. g. abstrusity or Intensity of Food lack Figures 14 and 15 below show the depth of food poverty with similitude to the MDER over the four quarters of the year, at the national and sub national levels and by income levels respectively. The Figures show that urban areas which had a low DEC had a hig her food deficit than the national and rural areas. The food deficit was less in the fourth quarter at the national level and in urban and rural areas. This was also true for the income levels due to the high level of DEC observed as from October 2005.There was a general high food deficit during the third quarter in almost all the regional or economic population groupings and the high income group witnessed a food deficit of just about 150 kcal/person/day. Figure 14 Food deficit (Kcal) to MDER Regions Figure 15 Food deficit (Kcal) to MDER Income levels pic pic h. Food shareThe share of food expenditure to total consumption expenditure estimated from the annual household data at national level was 69 percent. The share of food expenditure at national level showed an preposterous trend over the four quarters of the year 2005. From a level of 68. 4 percent in the first quarter, it increased to 69. 6 percent, fell down to 65 percent in the third quarter and rose to 65. 3 percent in t he last quarter. The same patterns occurred in urban and rural areas, but with higher magnitude in rural areas and lower values for urban areas (figure 18).However, the food share showed a decreasing trend over the four quarters with increasing income levels with a high food share (80 percent) among the population of the low income group to about 50 percent for those of the highest income group. The second quarter had the maximum food share in most of the population groupings (Figure 19) which could be a period of harvest of some food crops. Figure 16 Food expenditure share by Region Figure 17 Food expenditure share by Income levels pic pic Figures 18 and 19 illustrate the share of dietary energy consumption by food sources at national and sub-national levels and by income levels respectively for the four quarters of 2005. Purchase was almost the only source of dietary energy consumption for the population of the urban regions, while own production food constitute a significant sh are of DEC to the order of about 40 percent in most of the other population groupings. There was little variation in own production contribution between the quarters, apart from some high share in quarters one and four for the high income level groups, probably due to the harvesting season.Figure 19 Share of DEC by food sources &038 Figure 18 Share of DEC by food sources &038 Regions Income levels pic pic 4. CONCLUSION The analysis of the longitudinal food consumption data of Tajikistan 2005 HBS provides some useful and pertinent characteristics of food security statistics Food deprivation differed by seasons and by income levels. Food consumption is seasonal and is influenced by national ocio-religious events. Food demand was high in high income levels during specific periods. Dietary energy unit value differed with seasons and income levels. Diet consumption of nutrients was affected over the seasons. Food consumption from purchases were not affected by seasons while that from own production varied over the months of the year. There was a seasonal affect on the diet consumption of nutrients Food inequality or access measures were low when estimated with monthly data and the use of more aggregated data caused overestimation. The forte of hunger differed by season and income levels Food share varied with seasons and level of income. REFERENCES 1. FAO (2003). methodological analysis for the measurement of food deprivation. Statistics Division, Food gage Statistics. Rome. Available at the Metadata of the Food Security Statistics webpage http//www. fao. org/faostat/foodsecurity/index_en. htm 2. FAO (2006). Food Security Statistics Module, note 1 Processing User Manual, Step 2 Analysis User Manual and Step 3 Reports User Manual, FAO July 2006. . Sibrian R Ramasawmy S and Mernies J (2007). Measuring hunger at sub national levels from household surveys using the FAO approach MANUAL. FAO Statistics Division Working base Series No. ESS/ESSA/005e. Ava ilable at the webpage. http//www. fao. org/es/ess/faostat/foodsecurity/Papers_en. htm . 4. Tajikistan Food Insecurity judging report derived from the food consumption data of Tajikistan 2005 HBS, Dushanbe August 2007. http//www. stat. tj/english/home. htmpic